Before any trial can begin, an extensive investigation must take place: the court needs to understand what led up to the criminal act committed. Law enforcement and investigators gather evidence, interview witnesses and conduct forensic analyses. Other techniques used during investigations include surveillance, search warrants, wiretaps, and more.

Physical evidence such as DNA, fingerprints, weapons and witness testimonies can link suspects to crime scenes. The investigation phase is an intricate process that requires strict adherence to legal procedures, otherwise, the evidence might not be admissible in court proceedings.

Trials: The Crucible of Justice

As soon as an investigation is over and charges filed, a case advances into trial phase. Trials serve as the cornerstone of criminal justice; whereby defendants stand before their accusers to rebut accusations fairly. Throughout a trial process – beginning with jury selection then proceeding through opening statements, evidence presentation, cross-examination, and closing arguments – multiple stages must take place.

Prosecution has the burden of proof in criminal trials; they must establish guilt beyond any reasonable doubt in order to guarantee that an accused remains presumed innocent until proven otherwise. Defense attorneys attempt to disprove this evidence against their client while challenging prosecution claims to introduce doubt.

Sentencing Procedures: Balancing Punishment and Rehabilitation

If the defendant is found guilty, the court moves on to sentencing phase, which must consider factors like nature of crime, past criminal history and rehabilitation needs when assigning punishments that can range from fines and probation up to imprisonment or even the death penalty depending on jurisdiction and severity of offenses.

Sentencing procedures aim to strike a balance between punishment, deterrence and rehabilitation. Judges usually have discretion in making these determinations while mandatory minimums or sentencing guidelines can sometimes dictate outcomes. Sentencing procedures seek to strike this equilibrium through various considerations including mandatory minimums or guidelines which define minimum sentences or mandatory minimums.